GRAPHENE & IT’S OXIDE
Graphene is a single 2 dimensional sheet of Carbon atoms which are bound in a repeating hexagonal lattice sequence.
We offer Graphene Oxide, (AIGO) as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide, (AIRGO) & AIGG – GRAPHENE DISPERSIONS IN GLYCEROL. These are manufactured by synthesis from graphite. Graphene surface modifications are Graphene Oxide as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide.
The applications of Graphene Oxide, (AIGO), Graphene Dispersions IN GLYCEROL (AIGG) & Reduced Graphene Oxide, (AIRGO) are various. The various characteristics of the AIGO, AIGG as well as AIRGO especially dictates the applications for which it is most suited for.
AIRGO is dispersible in water to a limited extent, requiring co-solvent/s to increase solubility.
GRAPHENE OXIDE (AIGO)
AIGO GRAPHENE OXIDE is a single or multi Carbon layer with both surfaces modified by Oxygen containing functional groups.
Carbon layers in multilayer Graphene Oxide are separated by functional groups bonded to each layer of carbon atoms.
Graphene Oxide like Graphene is a 2 dimensional material.
Properties of Graphene Oxide & Graphene are extremely different.
- Graphene Oxide does not absorb visible light & has low electric conductance, and shows higher chemical activity as compared to Graphene.
- Graphene Oxide particles are highly hydrophilic & form stable aqueous dispersions in wide range of concentrations.
- Graphene Oxide forms stable dispersions with organic solvents like ethylene glycol & dimethylformamide (DMF) & N-methyl-2-pyrollidone (NMP) & tetrahydrofuran (THF). This is attributed to the fact that hydrogen bonding takes place between the hydroxyl groups on the surface of Graphene oxide & solvent interface. This property enables films to be made on different substrates using simple drop-casting method followed by evaporating the solvent.
- Graphene Oxide films have high optical transparency.
- As hydroxyl and epoxy groups are present on the planes and carboxylic acid groups at the edges, allows Graphene Oxide to be chemically functionalized by different reagents.
- Non-covalent functionalization (by cation-π or van der Waals interaction) allows successful attachment of DNA or proteins to the surface of Graphene Oxide films which is useful for bio sensing applications.
General Applications: Construction material; Paints & Coatings; Plastic & Polymer Composites; Lubricants; Water Purification; R&D work
Organoleptic properties: Dark Brown powder; odourless.
Flash Point: Above 19000C
Density: ~ 0.5 g/cm3
Average Particle Size: 60-90 µm
Average D/G Ratio: 1.01 – 1.10
REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE (AIRGO)
AIRGO REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE is obtained by reduction of AIGO Graphene Oxide using different methods, allowing different levels of reduction. Oxygen containing functional groups make the surface of Graphene Oxide highly reactive and are easily removed from the plane.
Reduced Graphene Oxide functionalization is attributed mainly to non-covalent vander Waals & π- π stacking interaction of polymers or small molecules with basal plane. Thus they can be diazotized & sulfonated.
AIRGO has high electric & thermal conductance.
Energy storage (Lead Acid, Lithium-ion & Air-Aluminium batteries); Sensors & Capacitors; Plastic & Polymer Composites; Lubricants; R&D work
Organoleptic properties: Black powder; odourless.
Flash Point: Not Available
Tapped Density: ~ 0.006 g/cm 3 & ~ 0.008 g/cm 3
Average Particle Size: 60-90 µm
Average D/G Ratio: 0.97 to 1.10
Graphene based materials including its Oxide are used as additives for food packaging materials. The advantage of this addition contributes to improvements in:
GAS & MOISTURE BARRIER
RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY
These advantages allow preservation of packed foods, increases freshness & also shelf-life of packed foods.
AIGG is a dispersion of Graphene (AIRGO) Glycerol having few layer Graphene.
AIGG dispersion of graphene in glycerol has been created to make available pre-dispersed graphene in liquid form for ease of use in several applications as well as a variety of industrial & scientific uses. AIGG dispersion provides an alcohol-free alternative to solvent-based graphene dispersions & is eco-friendly.
Application areas of AIGG Dispersion
- Toothpaste formulations
- Skin & Haircare products
- Shaving creams
- Personal care products – mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant.
- Glycerine soaps
- Water-based personal lubricants
- Medicine & pharmaceuticals
- In surface science to reduce the coefficient of friction of polymer-coated surfaces by several orders of magnitude.
Product Specifications of AIGG
The values shown are indicative & may show slight deviations from batch to batch.
|Tests||Typical Values||Test Method|
|Color & Appearance||Black, paste||Organoleptic|
|Density @ 250C (g/cm3)||1.38||DIN EN ISO 2811-2|
|Flash Point (0C)||Above 1000C||DIN EN ISO 1523|
|Viscosity @ 250C (Pa.s)||115||DIN EN ISO 2555|
|Content of Graphene (AIRGO) (%w/w)||≈ 15||TGA|
ADVANTAGES OF AIGG
High thermal dissipation
Anti freezing properties
Anti bacterial Properties
Compatible with most materials
Ease of formulation
Alcohol-free alternative for graphene-based solvent
Few layers of Graphene for maximum efficacy
For futher enquiries write to firstname.lastname@example.org
GRAPHENE OXIDE (AIGO) & REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE (AIRGO), AIGOD – GRAPHENE OXIDE DISPERSIONS APPLICATIONS
Conductive Transparent Coatings
Graphene Oxide is being used in fabrication of transparent Graphene electrodes of unrestricted area for displays, solar cells and additionally in luminescent light sources. Reduced Graphene Oxide is used to obtain transparent protective & conductive coatings.
Reduced Graphene Oxide transparent film is as a matter of fact is somewhat less conductive then CVD graphene films. Reduced Graphene Oxide films can withstand physical deformation and paves way for application in flexible electronics.
Selective transformation of Graphene Oxide to Reduced Graphene Oxide allows formation of electrical interconnections on flexible substrates. Above all this opens up its applicability in fabrication like flexible as well as transparent circuit interconnections, Field Effect Transistors (FETs) & Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs).
The Reduced Graphene Oxide (AIRGO) are a part of electrodes for energy storage systems For example – Super capacitors, Lithium ion, Lead-Acid, Lithium Sulfur, Air-Aluminium etc. batteries in particular. Reduced Graphene Oxide particularly shows significant performance as anode material (NAM) in Lithium ion batteries as compared to graphite.
A Reduced Graphene Oxide has large surface to mass ratio, high electrical conductivity & moreover have high mechanical strength. This makes them NAMs for high capacity, fast-charging Lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium ion intercalaction, on the other hand, into reduced Graphene Oxide enhances specific capacity of the graphene nanostructures.
Low cost flexible solar cells can take advantage of large area Reduced Graphene Oxide. Graphene Oxide as well as chemically modified Reduced Graphene Oxide can be used subsequently as components for electron transport layers in developing organic perovskite based solar cells. Using Graphene Oxide as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide especially enhances quantum efficiency as well as durability. Graphene Oxide & Reduced Graphene Oxide are also useful materials for counter electrode in dye-sensitized ultralow cost solar cells based on liquid electrolyte.
Moreover, Reduced Graphene Oxide, can be used as an electrode material in relation to making new generation Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs).
Chemically modified Graphene Oxide as well as Graphene Oxide based composites generally are effective adsorbents for removal various pollutions from wastewater, for most part, the heavy metal ions.; not to mention, that they can be easily regenerated.
Membrane filters of Graphene Oxide are used for example, for filtering wastewater including gases, heavy metals & carbon dioxide. The composites with polymers, of Graphene Oxide, for most part can be used for separation of mixtures of gases like carbon dioxide & methane as well as carbon dioxide & nitrogen.
Sensors for Chemistry & Biology
Partly reduced Graphene Oxide films are ideal for use in making chemical & biological sensors in sensing Hydrogen, & Nitrogen Dioxide as well as Humidity.
Medicine & Biology
Modified Graphene Oxide, for instance, can be used as drug carrier in cancer chemotherapy yet used as tool for gene cancer therapy based on RNA interference.
Aerogel sponges of Graphene Oxide as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide on the other hand can be used for microwave absorption for electromagnetic interference (EMI) & especially provides a shielding effect in this case.
CONSTRUCTION & CIVIL STRUCTURES
NANO MODIFICATION OF CONCRETE INCREASED ITS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Powder of Graphene Oxide (AIGO), additionally, (which has a very large surface area), drastically increases compressive strength of concrete by about 50% as compared to conventional Grade M 60.
This is a beneficial effect for construction and structural engineering for this reason. Graphene Oxide additionally enhances mechanical interlocking, additionally provides great interaction between the microcracks and also promotes hydration process.
Polycarboxylate Ether Superplastisizer additive ordinarily causes, above all, better dispersion of Graphene Oxide in the cement matrix. It additionally prevents aggregation of Graphene Oxide in the pore solution.
In summary, dispersion of small amounts of Graphene oxide is possible in large amounts of hydraulic cement-mortar mixes.
Free flowing powders of AIGO & AIRGO can be used as colorants for eye decorative cosmetics, skin products as well as mascaras.
Simply, AIGO, is by all means dispersible in water & in particular is safe to use at the same time in cosmetic hair coloring formulas. When mixed with chitosan, in particular, nano formulations of brown to black shades are obtained.
Above all they have good resistance to shampooing & , besides, additionally impart anti-static property to hair. Above all this makes it possible to, lastly, therefore make toxicity-free hair color formulations.
Above all, AIGO & AIRGO, usually, have a very large surface area in relation to Carbon Black Nano (CI 77266).
Currently, in the EU, for most part, Carbon Black nano is usually used as colorant as a matter of fact with a maximum concentration of 10%. Not to mention, however, that these carbon black nanoparticles have cytotoxicity, causes inflammation & affect phagocytosis by human monocytes. This generally causes lowered immunity.