FULLERENE – CAGEY & VERSATILE CARBON ALLOTROPE
Fullerene, C60, allotropes of carbon, were simply accidentally synthesized in 1985. Carbon atoms are connected usually by single or double in such a way that a closed or partially closed mesh & including fused rings of 5 or 7 carbon atoms. Therefore, they can be hallow sphere, elliptical, tube-like or other shapes. As compared to the fullerenes, graphene is a flat mesh of carbon atoms arranged in regular hexagons.
Empirical formula of fullerenes is written Cn, where in is the number of carbon atoms. One of the most popular is C60 & is known famously as Buckministerfullerene.
Enclosed fullerenes are obtained if 80 carbon atoms get connected and denoted as C80 and are famously called as “Bucky balls” owing their resemblance to a football.
In contrast, nested closed fullerenes are known as “Bucky onions”
Cylindrical fullerenes are called Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) or “Bucky tubes”.
Besides, in nature, fullerene is found is Shungite in trace amounts (<0.001%) as well as in outer space.
Exploitation of chemistry of the fullerenes also is allowing their technological applications in areas material science, electronics, nanotechnology, medicine & other unexplored ideas.
Some facts about Fullerene
Fullerene, moreover, is the only known allotrope of carbon that shows solubility at room temperature in organic solvents like toluene, 1,2,3 trichloropropane, monochlorobenzene etc. In carbon disulfide the solubility of C60 is known to be 8 g/L whereas in 1-chloronaphtahlene its 51 g/L.
C60(OH)24 , Fullerenol, is soluble in water.
Pure solutions of Buckminsterfullerene have a deep purple color, on the other hand, those of C70 have a reddish brown color. Color of solutions vary from C76 to C84.
Actually C60 can be usually crystallized from benzene below 300C & as a matter of fact affords a triclinic solid solvate of C60.4C6H5, however, above 300C the solvate disappears subsequently.
AIMIX; AIF 995 ; AIF 999, (Fullerenes), for example, are also used in health & beauty products & are a component of formulations which stimulate hair growth. Nevertheless they also show anti-oxidant efficacy.
AIFOL (Fullerenol), in contrast, is a water-soluble product, also having excellent anti-oxidative effects. AIFOL, above all, allows reversal of oxidative stress (caused by various factors) in cells & enzymes & furthermore protects them.
(AIF 995 & 999)
(AIF 995 & 999)
CAS No. 99685-96-8. Molecular formula: C60. Molecular weight: 720.64 g/mol
|Properties||AIF 995 (C60)||AIF 999 (C60)|
|Appearance||Dark grey to black crystals||Dark grey to black crystals|
|Purity by HPLC (%)||Above 99.5||Above 99.9|
|Boiling point (0C)||526.8||526.8|
AIF 7 – TECHNICAL FULLERENE
|Appearance||Fine black powder|
|Extractable by toluene (Fullerene) (HPLC) (%)||6 to 8|
MIXED FULLERENE (AIMIX)
|Appearance||Dark grey to black crystals|
|C60 (HPLC) (%)||70 (+/-5)|
|C70 (HPLC) (%)||30 (+/-5)|
Besides, Fullerenol, polyhydroxylated derivative of Fullerene, being demonstrably water-soluble allotrope of Carbon, moreover, shows bioactivity. Consequently, fullerenes & their derivatives have important applications in diverse fields of physics, chemistry, nanobiotechnology, pharmacology, pharmaceuticals, foods & medicine. Likewise, many more areas, simply remain to be explored.
Bacteria-based & enzyme-based assays, on the other hand, allows study of mechanisms of toxic effects at cellular & molecular levels, respectively. By all means, the anti-oxidant activity of Fullerenols is exhibited in presence of organic & inorganic intoxicants (pollutants, industrial wastewaters etc.).
The Fullerenol, additionally, decrease cellular & biochemical toxicities at ultralow concentrations,
(approx. 10-17-10-5 g/L) in a non-dependent way. Ordinarily, Fullerenol has catalytic activity at about 10−8 g/L concentrations in cellular NADH-dependent enzymatic reactions. This certainly contributes to its anti-oxidant efficacy.
Antioxidant effect of highly diluted Fullerenol solutions on bacterial cells has been simply attributed to hormesis phenomenon coupled with the detoxification which was concerned with stimulation of adaptive cellular response under low-dose exposures.
Reactions & Mechanism of activity
Like fullerenes, C60, Fullerenol, simply, behaved like electron deficient agents & readily reacted with electron rich species . So then this makes Fullerenols are highly effective catalysts in chemistry & biology. These Fullerenols are an example of amphipathic nature. Hydroxy, -OH, groups, as a rule, impart water solubility in this case & on the other hand, the fullerene skeleton allows lipid solubility & the more the number of –OH groups, the higher the solubility in water.
Hydrophilicity allows scavenging of free radicals, providing an alternative to current medicinal agents in fields of treatment of cancer, neural disease, radiobiology etc.
Biological effects of Fullerenol encompasses cell protection, drug transport & neutralization of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) . Maximum activity is exhibited by С60(ОН)18–24.
Following diagram shows anti-oxidative effect of fullerenols in cells & their enzymes.
Intensified biochemical reactions are due to catalytic activity & effect on cell is due to hormesis phenomenon
FULLERENOL CAS No. 182024-42-6. Molecular formula: C60(OH)24.
|Appearance & solubility||Dark brown crystals, soluble in water|
|Carbon Content (%)||63.82|
FULLCROP – FULLERENOL LIQUID
FULLCROP is Fullerenol Liquid & is obtained from Fullerene, C60, which is an allotropic form of carbon, regular spherical shape, in other words, it is a ball or “black & white soccer ball”.
Due to 3-dimensional spherical structure, fullerene molecule has unique properties which is advantageous for crops.
It is non-toxic, non-immunogenic & non-allergenic.
Advantages of FULLCROP:
- Improves the absorption of micro & macronutrients
- Increases: a) efficiency of liquid fertilizer
- b) tissue hydration
- Neutralizes the action of pathogenic bacteria and fungi
- Increases resistance to stress and minimizes the impact of an aggressive environment
- Recommended for foliar & root treatment during the growth season
- Crop yields increases above 10%
- Effectiveness of the base fertilizer Increases by 5-10%
Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats, Corn, Cotton, Rice
DOSAGE of FULLCROP: 1 Litre per 50 hectares
Price: Rs. 250 per hectare (~ 2.47 acre) (Rs.81/- per acre)
APPLICATIONS OF FULLERENE
|Lubricants, Coatings, Paints||For Novel classes of polymers with mechanical, optical, electrical & magnetic properties; new classes for anti-friction coating & lubricants, including those based on fluorine-containing fullerene compounds. Improvised properties in solid lubricants, composite coating & Intumescent paints.|
|Electrical Engineering & Electronics||Materials with magnetic & superconducting properties; Photographic materials & above all materials for converting electrical energy into light|
|Chemistry||Newer chemical synthesis & catalysis|
|Medicine, Pharmacology & Beauty products||Neurobiology, virology, immunology, allergology. etc. (Novel means of delivery, biologically active substances, medicines, sorbents (including for hemosorption), protective films, health & beauty products (cosmetics) as an anti-oxidant.|
|Construction||Structural materials (including concrete) with specified mechanical & acoustic properties & heavy-duty protective films for various objects.|
|Optics||Electronic and optical devices based on the use of fullerenes or materials based on them, lasers & optical limiters.|
|Ecology||Sorbents: exhaust gas purification, water purification & capsules making for the safe disposal of radioactive waste.|
|Energy||As new types of fuels & fuel additives, environmentally friendly sources of electricity, as well as hydrogen batteries, solar energy converters.|
|Materials||In addition, improved characteristics of various materials is achieved – for example- rubbers, metals, polymers.|
|Food Industry||Sorbents: Purification of wine & vodka products & on the other hand, they are used as an antioxidant additive to edible oils, like olive oils & fats & other food products.|
Fullerene surely & in relation to derivatives
Now, in the first place, Fullerenes are electrical insulators, however, when crystallized with alkali earth metals the product can be especially conducting or superconducting. Furthermore, these fullerenes have been used for biomedical applications like MRI contrast media, X-ray imaging, photodynamic therapy (PDT), & drug & gene delivery systems.
C60 can be functionalized with amino acids (like L-phenylalanine, L-arginine etc.), or vitamins (like Folic acid) etc. Then, therefore, increases their solubility & this is why it allows them to reach to cancer cells which are otherwise difficult to access.
Upon absorption by the cells, the C60 derivatives react with light radiation, allowing the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) & this triggers the cancer cell’s death by reacting with components of the cancer cell especially, DNA, proteins & lipids and subsequently, leads to a reduction in tumor size. Lastly, once light radiation is over the fullerene will reabsorb the free radicals & demonstrably prevent damage to other tissues.